Figure 8-2

Figure 8-2. The complete box model

In general, the width of an element is defined tobe the distance from the left inner edge to the right inner edge, andthe height is the distance from the inner top tothe inner bottom. These are both, not coincidentally, properties thatcan be applied to an element.

The various widths, heights, padding, margins, and borders allcombine to determine how a document is laid out. In most cases, the

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XML is language independent

By being language independent, XML bypasses the requirement to have a standard binary encoding or storage format. Language independence also fosters immense interoperability amongst heterogeneous systems. It is also good for future compatilbilty. For example, if in the future a product needs to be changed in order to deal with a new computing paradigm or network protocol, by keeping XML flowing through the system, addition of a new layer to deal with this change is feasible.

DOM and SAX are open, language-independent set of interfaces

By defining a set of programming language independent interfaces that allow the accessing and mutation of XML documents, the W3C made it easier for programmers to deal with XML. Not only does XML address the need for a standard information encoding and storage format, it also allows programmers a standard way to use that information. SAX is a very low level API, but it is more than what has been available before it. DOM is a higher level API that even provides a default object model for all XML documents (saving time in creating one from scratch if you are using data is document data).

predefined, you don't know how your styles might interact with them. Remember the example where links ended up being white on white? That's the sort of thing we want to avoid.

Let's explore this in a little more detail. Assume the following:

/* reader styles */
BODY {color: white; background-color: black;}
/* author styles */margins are collapsed. If there are negative vertical margins, then
the browser should take the absolute
maximum of the negative margins and subtract that from the maximum of
any positive margins.

In the case where there are only two margins to be collapsed, one positive and the other negative, the situation is handled in a fairly simple manner. The absolute value of the negative margin is subtracted from the positive margin -- or, to put it another way, the negative is added to the positive -- and the resulting value