Sunday 19th of November 2017 04:43:40 PM


This area should be horizontally and vertically centered.
This text stays left aligned

Figure 6-34

Figure 6-34. Creating a "triple border" on H2 elements

We can take that further and decide to set a wavy border along thetop of each H1 element, as illustrated in Figure 6-35. The image is colored in such a way that itblends with the background color and produces the wavy effect shown:

H1 {background-image: url(wavybord.gif); background-repeat: repeat-x;background-color: #CCCCCC;}
Figure 6-35

Figure 6-35. Setting a wavy top border on H1 elements

Simply by choosing the appropriate image for the job, and employing ie mac doesn't like this!
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define them individually. You may also have to explicitly declare styles for nested lists because the user agent's style sheet may already have defined such styles. Assume that a UA has the following styles defined:

UL {list-style-type: disc;}
UL UL {list-style-type: circle;}
UL UL UL {list-style-type: square;}

If this is so, and it's likely that it will be, you will have to declare your own styles to overcome the UA's styles.Remember, though, that CSS is not supposed to be a totally precise layout language -- and besides, many of the issues discussed in the chapter are not the fault of CSS but are more fundamental issues that you'll encounter no matter what you try to do with a computer. So, once you've finished this chapter, you will have a grasp not only of how CSS units work, but perhaps also of a few basic issues that you previously were unaware of.

Above all, though, regardless of how bleak things may seem, keep going! Your perseverance will be rewarded.Since the structure of the XML document can be specified in DTDs they provide a simple way to make it easier to exchange XML documents that conform to a DTD. For example, if two software systems need to exchange information, then if both of the systems conform to one DTD, the two systems can process information from each other. DTDs are not as powerful as some kind of schema architecture for XML, they don't support typing, subclassing, or instantiation mechanisms that a schema architecture must have.

DTDs are a simple way to make sure that 2 or more XML documents are of the same "type". Its a very limited approach to making "typed" XML documents shareable across systems. In the future some kind of schema system will be proposed by the W3C that should allow typing, instantiation and inheritance of information (in XML).

XML enables interoperability

All of the advantages of XML outlined so far all make interoperability possible. This is one of the most important requirements for XML, to enable disparate systems to be able to share information easily.

By taking the lowest common denominator approach, by being web enabled, protocol independent, network independent, platform independent and extensible, XML makes it possible for new systems and old systems (that are all different) to communicate with each other. Encoding information in plain text with tags is better than using propietary and platform dependent binary formats.

2px , then a medium-width border will always betwo pixels wide, whether the border surrounds anH1 or a P element. Figure 7-36 illustrates one way to handle these threekeywords, as well as how they relate to each other and to the contentthey surround.

Figure 7-36

Figure 7-36. The relation of border-width keywords to each other

Let's suppose a paragraph has margins, a background color, anda border style set as shown in Figure 7-37:

HTML. In fact, you can use margin to set extraspace around an image. Let's say you want 1 em of spacesurrounding all images:

That's all it takes.

There may be times where you want a different amount of space on eachside of an element. That's simple as well. If we want allH1 elements to have a top margin of 10 pixels, aright margin of 20 pixels, a bottom margin of 15 pixels, and a leftmargin of 5 pixels, here's all we need: