Another important thing about the containing block is this: elements can be positioned outside of their containing block. This is very similar to the way in which floated elements can use negative margins to float outside of their parent's content area. It also makes it seem like the term "containing block" should really be "positioning context," but since the specification uses "containing block," so will this text. (We do try to minimize confusion. Really!)

Sunday 26th of March 2017 04:50:50 PM

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reduced so that it's only one pixel tall. (We could have usedalmost any length value here, so long as it was a very small amount.)This inline box, as we saw in Chapter 8, "Visual Formatting", iscentered vertically inside the "S" itself. Then thebaseline of the "S" is lowered so that it's as fardown as the baseline of the next line of text (since a-100% vertical alignment will lower the baselinethe same distance as the font-size of the parentelement). Ordinarily, this would make the first line boxcorrespondingly taller, but since we're declared (which are descendants of a DIV) would be madepurple under the given rule, whereas simple inheritance would not besufficient to make them purple.

While you can use the universal selector in combination withclass and ID selectors, there isn't muchreason to do so. The following two rules mean exactly the same thing:

*.apple {color: red;}.apple {color: red;}

7.7.4. List Styles In Shorthand

For brevity's sake, you can combine the three list-style properties into a convenient single property: list-style.


you will no doubt remember the first time you changed the colors of a web page. Instead of the old black text on a gray background with blue links, all of a sudden you could use any combination of colors you desired -- perhaps light blue text on a black background with lime green hyperlinks. From there, you probably moved on to putting images in the background and combining background images with appropriately colored text to make some really cool-looking pages.

Eventually, though, one comes to realize that setting a single color for all of the text in a page just isn't enough. That's

Web-based Applications

Web-based applications are similar to app servers, except for one thing: Web-based applications don't have client apps, instead they use web browsers on the client side. They generate their front ends using HTML, which is dynamically generated by the web-based app. In the Java world, Servlets are best suited for this job.

Web-based apps might themselves rely on another app server to gather information that is presented on the client web browser. Also, you can write Servlets that get information from remote or local databases, XML document repositories and even other Servlets. One good use for web-based apps is to be a wrapper around an app server, so that you can allow your customers to access at least part of the services offered by your app server via a simple web browser. So web-based apps allow you to integrate many components including app servers, and provide access to this information over the web via a simple web browser.